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On September 16, 2011, a complete 'Developer Preview' of Visual Studio 11 was published on Microsoft's website. Visual Studio 11 Developer Preview requires Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, or later operating systems. Versions of Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC) and C runtime (CRT) included with this release cannot produce software that is compatible with Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 except by using native multi-targeting and foregoing the newest libraries, compilers, and headers. However, on June 15, 2012, a blog post on the VC++ Team blog announced that based on customer feedback, Microsoft would re-introduce native support for Windows XP targets (though not for XP as a development platform) in a version of Visual C++ to be released later in the fall of 2012. "Visual Studio 2012 Update 1" (Visual Studio 2012.1) was released in November 2012. This update added support for Windows XP targets and also added other new tools and features (e.g. improved diagnostics and testing support for Windows Store apps).
In the Visual Studio 2012 release candidate (RC), a major change to the interface is the use of all-caps menu bar, as part of the campaign to keep Visual Studio consistent with the direction of other Microsoft user interfaces, and to provide added structure to the top menu bar area. The redesign was criticized for being hard to read, and going against the trends started by developers to use CamelCase to make words stand out better. Some speculated that the root cause of the redesign was to incorporate the simplistic look and feel of Metro programs. However, there exists a Windows Registry option to allow users to disable the all-caps interface.
The final release of Visual Studio 2013 became available for download on October 17, 2013, along with .NET 4.5.1. Visual Studio 2013 officially launched on November 13, 2013, at a virtual launch event keynoted by S. Somasegar and hosted on events.visualstudio.com. "Visual Studio 2013 Update 1" (Visual Studio 2013.1) was released on January 20, 2014.Visual Studio 2013.1 is a targeted update that addresses some key areas of customer feedback."Visual Studio 2013 Update 2" (Visual Studio 2013.2) was released on May 12, 2014.Visual Studio 2013 Update 3 was released on August 4, 2014. With this update, Visual Studio provides an option to disable the all-caps menus, which was introduced in VS2012."Visual Studio 2013 Update 4" (Visual Studio 2013.4) was released on November 12, 2014."Visual Studio 2013 Update 5" (Visual Studio 2013.5) was released on July 20, 2015.
Visual Studio Lab Management is a software development tool developed by Microsoft for software testers to create and manage virtual environments. Lab Management extends the existing Visual Studio Application Lifecycle Management platform to enable an integrated Hyper-V based test lab. Since Visual Studio 2012, it is already shipped as a part of it; and, can be set up after Azure DevOps and SCVMM are integrated.
LightSwitch includes graphical designers for designing entities and entity relationships, entity queries, and UI screens. Business logic may be written in either Visual Basic or Visual C#. LightSwitch is included with Visual Studio 2012 Professional and higher. Visual Studio 2015 is the last release of Visual Studio that includes the LightSwitch tooling.
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Cracked tooth is a distinct type of longitudinal tooth fracture which occurs very commonly and its diagnosis can be challenging. This type of fracture tends to grow and change over time. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because the signs and symptoms are variable or nonspecific and may even resemble post-treatment disease following root canal treatment or periodontal disease. This variety and unpredictability make the cracked tooth a challenging diagnostic entity. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in diagnosis of complex endodontic cases has been well documented in the literature. In this paper we present two cases of cracked tooth and emphasise on the timely use of cone beam computed tomography as an aid in diagnosis and as a prognostic determinant.
Longitudinal tooth fractures are characterized by an incomplete or complete fracture line that extends through the long axis of the tooth . These linear fractures tend to grow and change over time . They have been classified into 5 distinct groups, generally from least to most severe: craze lines; fractured cusp; cracked tooth; split tooth; vertical root fractures .
Cracked tooth is common and challenging . It may be caused by excessive forces from mastication or occlusion, either large forces on a normal tooth or normal forces on a weakened tooth . Complex restorative and endodontic treatments that remove dentin compromise the internal strength of the tooth making it susceptible to fracture . The detection of non-displaced longitudinal fractures, such as a cracked tooth, is a significant challenge in clinical practice . Clinical diagnosis is difficult because the signs and symptoms are variable or nonspecific and may even resemble post-treatment disease following root canal treatment or periodontal disease . Radiographic signs are usually absent when the orientation of the X-ray beam is not parallel to the plane of the fracture making the diagnosis even more challenging . Moreover superimposition of other structures further limits the sensitivity of radiographs for the detection of fractures.
Cracked tooth by itself is not a diagnosis, but is a finding. A cracked tooth can act as a pathway for bacteria that may induce pulpal and/or periapical inflammation or disease. The relationship between cracks in teeth and endodontic diagnosis depends upon the extent of the fracture. If the fracture is in or in close proximity to the pulp and allows bacterial byproducts or frank bacteria to communicate with the pulp, then inflammation and pulpal degeneration occurs. If the fracture is not in close proximity to the pulp and bacterial byproducts are neutralized in the dentinal tubules, then no pulpal inflammation or degeneration should be expected . The prognosis of a tooth depends on extent of the fracture. The prognosis of cracked tooth that is not treated will progressively deteriorate and may evolve into a split tooth or result in severe periodontal defects . Eventually the tooth may be lost. Therefore early diagnosis and treatment are essential in saving these teeth.
In this paper two case reports of cracked tooth which reported to the dental clinic of Penang International Dental College have been presented. The value of cone beam CT as a prognostic determinant has been highlighted.
The fracture in this case was considered to be a cracked tooth as it originated on the occlusal surface and extended onto the proximal surface and then onto the root surface until the apical third on both mesial and distal surfaces (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)).
Cracked tooth is a distinct type of longitudinal fracture of the tooth and studies have indicated increased incidence of cracked tooth [8, 9]. This type of fracture is not only associated with complex and long standing restorations but also with minimally restored teeth and teeth without any restorations as noticed in case report 2. The teeth usually involved are mandibular molars (restored and nonrestored) followed by maxillary premolars and then by maxillary first molars [1, 10, 11]. Cracks in teeth are almost invariably mesiodistal fractures  although mandibular molars may occasionally fracture toward the facial or lingual surface. Longitudinal fractures are common in root canal-treated teeth, because the strength of root canal treated tooth has already been compromised by caries, restorations, or overextended access preparations  making it vulnerable to fracture. Crown restorations given in posterior teeth after endodontic therapy provide bracing effect and prevent crack initiation and propagation. In case report 1, failure to deliver crown restoration after root canal therapy may have led to the propagation of crack over a period of time leading to devastating results and finally extraction of tooth.
Cracked tooth is not a diagnosis by itself, but a finding. The objective is to first detect and then determine the extent of the fracture. Useful aids in detection of cracked tooth are transillumination , careful visualisation after removal of restoration, selective biting on objects such as the Tooth Slooth or Fracfinder, dental operating microscopes, staining, and wedging forces .
In a cracked tooth pulp and periapical tests also produce variable results. The pulp is usually responsive (vital)  but may be non-responsive (necrosis) as well. Directional percussion is also advocated. Percussion that separates the crack may cause pain due to stimulation of the periodontal ligament proprioceptors . Periodontal probing is important and may disclose the approximate depth and severity of the fracture. However, subgingival fractures often do not create a probing defect. Therefore the absence of deep probing does not preclude a cracked tooth .
As the fracture in a cracked tooth is usually present in mesiodistal direction, it is not visible radiographically. Conventional dental radiography serves as an aid in assessing pulpal and periodontal compromise but gives little or no information on the direction and extent of the fracture. Depending on the extension towards the root and the relationship with the periodontium (below alveolar crest) the treatment is going to vary. If the fracture is limited to the crown surface, it can be restored. If a fracture extends below the alveolar crest, the prognosis is poor. Making the proper treatment decision is a challenge for the endodontist as there are limited noninvasive tools to assess the length of the fractures below the soft tissues and alveolar crest. 2b1af7f3a8